Assessing Building Performance in Healthcare Facilities Using Entropy Theories and Graph Heuristics

A hospital is made up of different units that work together to provide exemplary patient care. Some of the affected units include surgical suits, emergency areas, diagnostic imaging departments, intensive care units, neonatal intensive care areas, and laboratories. The design of a healthcare facility is guided by its primary functions, which include research, inpatient and outpatient care, diagnosis, or administration.1. When redesigning a hospital, the designer must consider the current state, such as the location of the facility, the people served by the facility, and the expected level of the facility. As a first step in the redesign process, this article aims to redesign the hospital by evaluating and weighing various standards in building a healthcare facility that meets international requirements. American Institute of Architecture (AIA) Guidelines for the Design and Construction of Healthcare Facilities2American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineering (ASHRAE)3healthcare facility ventilation standards and healthcare technical memorandum (HTM) guidelines for the design, installation, validation and verification of medical gas piping systems4Facilities Guidance Institution (FGI) for the design and construction of healthcare facilities5were used as standard references for the evaluation process.

Implemented decision matrices can PROVIDE a defined structure in which various options can be compared to make a better decision. A weighted decision matrix compares a group of choices to the criteria considered in the decision-making process. Therefore, many researchers have developed a variety of weighting methods to help materials and methods. The materials and methods section should include adequate detail to allow all procedures to be repeated. It can be divided into header subsections if more than one method is described. In decision making, including analytical hierarchy process, critical method and entropy method6.

Entropy method

Entropy is a method used to assess the weight of a given problem, in which the decision conditions for a set of candidate materials contain a particular volume of information. R. Clausius, a physicist, predicted the thermodynamic theory of entropy in 1865. It is a formal factor of matter that denotes the state of thermodynamic systemsseven. In 1948, Shannon introduced the entropy in data concept, which was used to determine the ambiguity of indications of the source of information known as the entropy of information. The entropy method is mainly used in information theory to signify the ambiguity of communication, assess the ability of separate evaluative power to enable decision data, and determine virtual weight. As shown in the judgment matrix, the entropy weight can be wanted. “The lower the entropy of the evaluated information criterion, the greater the weight of the information criterion.8which is an isolated fact if the fundamental expectation that all of the foundations of information are reliable.

The entropy method is important for several reasons: it estimates the information of the sign in addition to the practical point of the variance of the sign to determine the actual information and the weight of the controlled sign in the identified data. The entropy weighting specifies the virtual meaning of the constant sign in the struggle, which is under the circumstances of a specified evaluation thing, as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1

The method of determining and aggregating the weight source.

Advantages of the entropy method

This method is well known for efficiently determining response divergence and contrast intensity and calculating their weights appropriately.9.

Furthermore, it recommends that the information available is adequate, and if it is not sufficient, additional information is needed.ten.

This approach allows for the quantitative assessment of success and cost responses.

The plan of the entropic weighting method provides an additional difference in the approval of the coefficients for the answers. An entropy plan should determine significant disagreement between decision-making responses11.

The strategy of this method facilitates the calculation of weight and is an extremely effective technique for evaluating indicators.

Limitation of the entropy method

The calculated entropy weights the missing specialized decisions; therefore, it only considers entropy values12.13.

This method has no implications for the designer’s first choice.

The effectiveness of the entropy method in decision making demonstrates that the preference for this method is problematic, as it does not take into account the perception of ranks.

The entropy method is used to weight our collected standards after most of the methods are analyzed for weighting, and the absence of a standard can be measured in any department to apply the evaluation process. However, we have a significant problem with layout installations; therefore, heuristics based on graph theory are used to measure the layout score against the criteria that should be considered in the decision-making process. Therefore, many researchers have developed a variety of weighting methods to aid in decision making, including the analytical hierarchy process, the critical method, and the entropy method.

Multi-criteria decision analysis can be described as a research approach that helps create a complex decision through explicit consideration in a transparent manner, which is essential as it facilitates clear understanding of the issue, thereby improving efficiency and consistency. of the decision-making process, as described by14.

The facility layout problem (FLP) is the placement of facilities in an area of ​​the plant where it is an important component of the organization because it represents the largest and most expensive assets in the plant. organization (Figs. 2, 3). Theoretically, a graph is an approach to heuristic theories to solve the layout problem: when the goal is to maximize profit, the plant layout problem is to determine, in an edge-weighted graph given G, a maximally weighted planar subgraph15.16.

Figure 2
Figure 2

Accommodation issues.

picture 3
picture 3

Accommodation issues.

Literature review

The assessment was a step in redesigning the hospital, and the facility has been described as a complex undertaking studied and analyzed by many scholars. Many researchers have studied and analyzed this process. In addition, he must integrate the technical requirements demanded by current and modern medical needs and consider the functional requirements in collaboration with a variety of units. The planner should consider issues such as healing capacities, stressful work environments, patient anxiety, and facility sustainability.17. Patients expect a given healthcare facility to be easy to navigate, to have a friendly and welcoming facade or reception area, to have soothing interiors such as cool colors, to meet spiritual needs, and to be able to see the nature or access to daylight while in the facility. It must also take into account the needs of the working staff considering issues such as quiet rooms, the distances they travel to serve their patients, their proximity to the patients they treat and the internal needs of the nature, which allow tasks to be carried out optimally. levels, reflecting the quality of the patient. The care they give18.

19 Introducing a new construction algorithm for computer-aided factory layout. Layouts are created using ALDEP, while adjacency-based heuristic and maximum adjacency-based objective are used to evaluate them. The solution was built on the basis of objectively measurable mathematical expressions. According to the results, the layout generated by the adjacency-based heuristic has a higher layout score than that generated by the automated layout design program (ALDEP), and the adjacency can generate a shorter handling distance than ALDEP.

Many types of research have been conducted on the redesign of healthcare facilities to meet the standards required at some level. The construction of a new hospital makes it possible to align the layout of the hospital with the planned logistical idea. This method is used to assess the flexibility and adaptability of a design for handling operations at a specific instance. The chosen case concerns a new Dutch hospital built on a new site after the merger of two hospitals. The new hospital introduces 21st century airport operations management concepts to the design of an outpatient clinic. The concept of the 21st century airport aims to use the space of the hospital building by centralizing the waiting areas20.21.

In22, a redesigned model of a clinical pharmacy in a university hospital in Colombia was described, which is the hospital unit responsible for purchasing, preparing, distributing various items and storing for warehousing purposes in a hospital. The model was described as contributing significantly to the increase in interventions, which was estimated at 70%. There was a 134% cost reduction and most of the pharmacists’ time was spent on patient care rather than administrative activities. The activities of technicians and technologists were more focused on patient care. The approach to evaluating hospital building design in terms of operations management to ensure that the design is fit for purpose contributes to the effective and efficient operation of healthcare facility processes in the present and the future . An assessment approach is a valuable tool for assessing both the functionality and the ability of the operational control of a building design to respond to future advancements.

A variety of automated algorithms have been used to help layout planners develop alternative layouts. An Automated Layout Design Program (ALDEP) was created to improve the existing layout, while the Computerized Relative Allocation of Facilities Technique (CRAFT) was created to improve the existing layout. Better results will be obtained by studying hypotheses that combine the two algorithms rather than using them separately. The purpose of this study was to use ALDEP to determine the best plan for Jaya Mandiri and improve it with CRAFT. Improved CRAFT layout was the best layout based on material handling cost, build time, and adjacency-based score23.